How to paint a wall with water-based paint
Before you equip a room, do decoration. Without a successful background, there will be no beautiful design, and in addition there is always a need for practicality of the coating, ease of maintenance. They work with great zeal to decorate the walls, because this is the face of the room, and in aesthetics they should be better than the ceiling and floor. Choosing paint, wallpaper or panels is only part of the story. For example, when the first option has already been chosen, it remains to decide which basis will be better. Beginners in the repair business should choose water-based paints, because working with them will not bring much trouble.
Solutions based on an aqueous emulsion with coloring pigments are becoming increasingly popular. Last but not least - due to the light chemical composition, safety and low cost. Anyone who started a repair should find out why water-based materials are still good, how to paint the walls with water-based paint and what manipulations will have to be performed.
As the name implies, this type of paint is an emulsion. Its coloring elements remain undissolved until the mixture dries. After the emulsion has dried, the coloring particles acquire a film structure.
The chemical and physical characteristics of the material make perfectly smooth walls an achievable result. In this case, care for the resulting surface is not difficult. Enough damp rags and little effort, and the coating will be clean, maintaining the appearance. Water-based compositions are suitable for children's rooms, delicate surfaces, varieties of this paint are also used in bathrooms.
Due to its characteristics, the raw materials are stratified during storage: fillers and aqueous solution are separated. The construction mixer, which is used immediately before applying the paint, will help. In a bucket, it is sometimes necessary to dilute it with water, since the wet component can evaporate.
To know what will be the intensity of spraying from a spray gun, you need to ask about the viscosity index.
Advantages and disadvantages
Aqueous emulsion solutions pose no threat to human health or nature. None of the known types of paint contains toxic or other hazardous substances. Raw materials do not emit a sharp unpleasant odor, which consumers feel during painting with other types of solutions.
As soon as the water evaporates, the craftsmen proceed to the next stage of work. Manufacturers promise very fast drying, but in fact you have to wait even a day or more. Yet it is relatively fast.
Formulations based on an aqueous emulsion are given any color without exception. Use a construction mixer and additional pigments for this. Pure colors can be obtained even by an inexperienced person. With all this, a worthy palette of ready-made solutions will immediately open to the buyer.
The material is washed with water, solvents are not used. Hands and tools will be clean in less than a minute.
Drawbacks in aqueous emulsion solutions are also there. It is worth highlighting 4 key minuses:
- poorly suited for glossy and metallic surfaces;
- emulsion formulations are easier to fake;
- go easily, but not as evenly as thicker paints;
- they often overspend.
Types and characteristics of water-based paint
Among the varieties of this type of finish it is worth highlighting:
- polyvinyl acetate.
Water-based emulsion mixtures on the walls quickly become ready. This usually takes about a day. Paints dry in 20 hours, sometimes less than 10, in some cases more than 48 hours. Compositions complying with GOST do not emit a pungent odor, are easily amenable to instrument movements, acquire any shades, and for a long time maintain an integral surface. The viscosity of the solutions is regulated depending on the application method: materials with an index of 40–45 units are used with a brush, and 20–25 with an atomizer. The paint is applied in one or several layers, and only 1 m² leaves an average of 250 grams.
The most “weak” option is considered to be polyvinyl acetate solutions. Although they are cheap and better than others suitable for wooden and porous coatings, at the same time they do not tolerate moisture well and lose to other varieties in terms of durability. Acrylic mixtures are an expensive and high-quality version of water-based paints, silicone compounds claim the status of the "golden mean", but silicate with proper selection will be the perfect solution in rooms with normal conditions.
Acrylic water based paint
Most often they use it. Solutions are made from acrylic resins with additives as inclusions. For example, a latex additive allows you to apply paint in places exposed to water. Painted surfaces can be washed without fear that the quality of the coating will become worse.
Acrylic water-emulsion mixtures are applied, including on walls with a difference of up to 1 mm and randomly arranged roughnesses. As for the types of surfaces, the acrylic options are most versatile and compatible with plastic, wood, concrete and even glass. Among all varieties of aqueous emulsion formulations, acrylic is best suited for metal coatings, not least because it has anti-corrosion properties. It also dries better than the rest. Enough for just a few hours to begin the subsequent manipulations. Due to the high price of conventional mixtures, manufacturers also make paints with acrylic copolymers.
Silicone water based paint
The material is used in damp rooms, as well as in rooms in which moisture is formed. The listed use cases are suitable for these solutions due to the fact that the silicone base gives them high rates of vapor permeability. Mold and mildew do not multiply on the painted silicone surface. The re-emergence of these microorganisms to walls and ceilings will not be threatened either. At the same time, in terms of resistance to water, mixtures are inferior to acrylic.
Among the positive qualities noted ductility, strength and ease of use. It is difficult to rank the cost of silicone mixtures as advantages, however, the ratio of price and quality has contributed to the distribution on the market. A silicone based water based paint hides cracks and indentations with a diameter of up to 2 mm. Silicone solutions are considered a cross between acrylic and silicate.
Silicate water-based paint
The emulsion is made of water glass and coloring additives. Raw materials have a low cost and long life. Silicate paint withstands temperature extremes. Resistant to natural phenomena mixtures can last 2 decades without renewal. On sale there are modifications for interior and exterior decoration, as well as universal solutions - they are classified depending on the severity of the properties.
The silicate-colored coating absorbs air in which there is excess moisture. In too dry rooms, the surface will give off moisture. With all this, the raw materials can not be compared with silicone, because the latter is used in places where the influence of moist air on the walls and ceiling occurs constantly. A variety based on glass is suitable for the facades of houses with high groundwater nearby.
How to choose the right
Sellers may not distinguish between water-based and water-based paints. This is the first difficulty, and they solve it simply: the inscription "water emulsion" should be present on the package.
Surfaces in apartments quickly get dirty, especially with greasy spots, so washable options should be chosen. Of course, if this factor does not become limiting. Paint packaging should be checked for compliance with GOST. There are few marks on the package, you need to ask for a certificate. The process of manufacturing water emulsion formulations is not very difficult, so fakes come across more often than in the case of other paints. Sophisticated equipment and specific substances that are difficult to obtain are not used in production. This is good for the price, but in terms of quality assurance will have to be vigilant. In addition to the listed criteria, it is worth paying attention to the specifics of spending and the designation of destination - for indoor or outdoor use.
How to choose a color
Range of tinting substances:
- color with a metallic or pearly sheen;
- universal pastes for enamels;
- concentrates with a liquid consistency;
- pigment pastes.
Universal coloring pastes are suitable for epoxy, nitrocellulose and polyurethane enamels. Pigment used with wood and lumber.
For water emulsions, the maximum content of coloring pastes and colorants is about 20%. At the highest rate, saturation will be maximum, and the treated coating will not be affected by chemical attack.
The tinting pigments themselves are of natural or inorganic origin. In the first group, the color is brighter and deeper, but the compositions with them do not have high light fastness. The surface will be exposed before exposure to alkalis. Natural colors include umber, lapis lazuli, ocher, manganese, etc. Artificial dyes like carotene or rhodopsin give the mixture high light fastness, but they leave much less color.
Before purchasing, you should find out what the final result will be, and for this use special catalogs. Exceeding the permissible concentration will lead to a change in the properties of the paint, and because of the too low content, the raw materials will often have to be interfered.
Surface preparation for painting
Suitable for painting are wooden, plastered surfaces, drywall, panels, and even tile with wallpaper. First remove the unnecessary finishing layer: the old finish is usually not left. In the role of a universal tool to remove materials from the walls using a spatula. Then they go to alignment. To do this, work with flaws and eliminate small differences. In the case of severe flaws, a thick leveling layer is made. After proceeding to grinding.
Alignment is also carried out on beacons. At least if the plans include the use of solid finishing materials for paint. The next step is to eliminate cosmetic imperfections and putty the base and finish layers. Subsequently, the surface is cleaned and primed. It makes no sense to go on painting without putty and primer, because the durability of water-based paint will then be called into question.
Cleaning walls from old finishes
Old walls usually clear of:
As for the wallpaper, they are removed with a spatula. It is enough to pull the edge of the strip and bring the corner of the tool there. Then make unhurried movements up and down. In which case, the wallpaper is soaked with water and left for 20 minutes to soak.
Paint is removed using spatulas, chisels, scrapers, a hair dryer, solvents and a perforator. The basic set of tools depends on the type of surface and the paint itself. From plastered, cement, concrete and brick walls, paint is removed in different ways. The oil is the hardest to remove, especially from concrete. If necessary, apply mechanical, chemical and thermal methods of removal.
Old whitewash is eliminated by dry and wet methods. In the first case, a grinding machine is used, and in the second - a spatula, water, sponge and brushes.
The plaster can not be removed, but it will have to be done in all places where there is a void under it. It is determined by knocking. To eliminate the finish, ideally use a plaster remover.
Filling and priming
After cleaning and leveling the walls become ready for putty and primer. Putty is usually done in 2 layers: start and finish. The first is formed from a mixture or ready-made solution. It is applied using a masking fiberglass mesh. The first layer is made 2-3 mm thick. First applied with a wide spatula, and then spread narrow. Then they put the grid and increase the base layer, about another 2 mm. A final layer of 1.5-2 mm is formed when the starting layer is dry. Use fine-grained putty.
Before priming, dust is removed from the walls, for example with a soft-brushed brush. Acrylic is often chosen as a primer, because it is suitable for almost all types of surfaces. The compositions are applied with a wide brush, spray or roller. After 4-6 hours, the coating will dry out and become ready for painting.
Ways to apply paint
There are 3 main options: a roller, a spray gun and a brush. The latter is the most delicate, and it is used to bring the wall to a state of final readiness or for artwork and decor. The roller is a tool for quickly and uniformly staining a large area. Sprayers do everything for the master and very quickly, but control of the device and its stability are difficult moments. It will take preparation and an untrained person to achieve the ideal coverage is unlikely to succeed, at least at the first attempt.
In addition to choosing a tool, they also determine the ideal consistency: from very saturated to watery. In this sense, it all depends on the type of work. Before painting, you should apply test strokes, because the opportunity to change the shade and avoid high costs will still remain. The number of layers is 3 or 2 - the first option is optimal, the second is acceptable. Other solutions are unlikely to work.
How to prepare paint
It is diluted with water if the consistency is thick. Manufacturers produce different density options, and which one to stop is an individual question. Textured drawings with water-based paints make only thick compositions.
Mix the solutions with a low-speed drill with a mixer nozzle. The composition is also stirred immediately before starting work. Including due to the fact that there is no guarantee that after the addition of a coloring substance, the resulting color will not be impaired. Some of the masters add color immediately before applying to the wall. As for the color itself, it is necessary to take into account the change in hue after drying and the greater visual saturation of the composition in the container.
You can make a solution for application at a point of sale. In this case, as in others, it is necessary to prepare material for work at a time and for all walls in the room.
The fastest way to apply is to work with a roller. The soft part of the paint tool is made of polyamide, velor, pile and foam. Prices are almost the same.
For aqueous emulsion compositions, foam rubber is not the best way. Pile tools paint any surface, and for emulsion paints they are very useful. In this case, it should be controlled so that no villi remain on the surface. Smooth walls are painted with rollers with medium or short pile, and long, in turn, is not suitable for any type of work. On the one hand, velor tools absorb the solution too intensely, but at the same time they easily cope with the effects of active chemical compounds. Polyamide rollers are preferred by professional painters.First of all because of durability and compatibility with mixes.
When choosing a roller, you need to pay attention to the uniformity of the pillow and the quality of laying of the fibers / threads.
Spray guns are:
- Hand held
A manual spray gun that works by moving the piston is difficult to handle alone. Another person must be responsible for the air supply. In this case, the uniform application of pigment on the wall will provide smooth, verified movements.
An acceptable result is achieved when the device is perpendicular. An indirect angle to the floor at the exit will give blurry areas and smudges. From sharp movements on the coating will appear stains.
Even before the start of the main staining try on the training surface. Without this, it will not work to set up a sprayer, and the tool in this regard can be called "capricious." When painting walls, you can not do without controlling the distance from the floor and ceiling. Otherwise, the composition will fall on them. In which case they make protection for extraneous coatings. Places on the wall, lost due to various reasons, are then treated with a brush.
Create a textured surface
The texture can be done with the paint itself, and also formed with a combination of finishes and a water-based emulsion solution.
Use, for example, a combination of decorative plaster and mixture. Then the starting color of the base is applied to the finish. Stained with a medium hard bristle roller to fill the recesses. Hard-to-reach spots are also treated with spray paint. Then the protruding elements are covered with a different shade - using a sponge or a bald roller. It’s easy to create volume, and for the appearance of more complex visual effects, special training is needed.
The relief is attached without any textured coatings. In this case, buy a thick composition and do not breed it. Simple compositions on the walls are uneven accumulations of paint with thoughtful flaws and pimples. With the addition of water, shapes and patterns are made more vague. Often use rollers with a shaped surface and particles of materials. For the sake of patterns and color combinations, people agree to a large consumption of paint. With complex application technology, it will be even more significant.
How many layers are needed
Stained 2 or 3 times. Even distribution on the finishing putty will succeed after a minimum of 2 stains. Ideally, 3 layers are made, and then the color is guaranteed to be pleasant. It is not a matter of the water emulsion and the structural thickness of its layer, but the fact that the first layer is absorbed into the putty through the primer mixture. The subsequent layer of the coloring matter will make the first more complete, and the third will complement the second. The economical method involves the long-term distribution of the solution along the wall. Each of the two layers is then triturated to a perfect look and get an adequate result at lower cost.
Excessive paint in the first layer will lead to a deterioration in aesthetics and the formation of smudges, which will be very difficult to get rid of. When staining, subsequent layers are laid after partial or complete drying of the previous one. During drying, the room is protected from drafts.
Water-based paint is considered the least difficult option in terms of choice and effort spent. Buyers choose silicone, silicate, polyvinyl acetate, and also acrylic solutions, the latter sometimes containing latex additives. We can say that there is not much variety on the market, but almost every type of mixture has persistent options. People find a suitable water-based paint specifically for their needs. Coloring emulsions are used mainly inside buildings, and outside use those that are not “afraid” of bad weather. As a rule, solutions are applied to a cleaned surface, while tinting or leaving the original color. Before painting, the walls are putty and primed, and in the process - at least a 2-layer coating is formed. Masters use rollers and spray guns, as well as brushes for the finishing touches. If desired, a complex texture is made on the coating and in this case a thick mixture is chosen.