Ventilation in the bathroom and toilet: principles of arrangement
Toilets and bathrooms need extra care, including ventilation. In apartments and residential buildings, bathrooms are equipped with hoods, to which ventilation pipes are connected. In isolated cases, there may be a window in the toilet / bathroom. Organized natural air exchange involves only opening doors. For the bathroom, this is a fundamental point, because excess moisture damages furniture, door leaf and electronic appliances in the room. In the toilet, the role of ventilation is reduced mainly to the elimination of odors and the harmful effects on harmful microorganisms. Wall mounted bathroom fans provide an inflow of about 10 m³ per cubic meter per hour. For ordinary 6–7 is enough, and for combined with the toilet - 8-10. To improve the ventilation in the bathroom and toilet, you will have to access the empty space outside the walls.
Features - what ventilation is for
A person exhales more carbon dioxide than he consumes. As a result, the connection builds up in the room, and it becomes difficult to breathe. In addition, the body gives off heat, moisture and produces various products through holes in the skin. In the summer, it becomes stuffy because of this, and the smell in the rooms worsens. A high level of tightness exacerbates the situation. Natural and artificial ventilation improves air conditioning and eliminates the problem. Lack of oxygen (hypoxia) will not threaten human health, and the premises will become suitable for long pastimes. Ventilation is very relevant in the case of pets, because they are much shorter in height and are located exactly where most of the carbon dioxide accumulates. The influx of oxygen has a beneficial effect on hygiene: the fungus becomes more difficult to develop, and timely ventilation ensures the absence of a harmful microorganism. This is more important for bathrooms.
Types of ventilation
Whatever room the ventilation belongs to, it is natural and forced. In bathrooms and toilets, both natural and artificial methods are available. In the first case, airing is carried out through an opening in the form of an extract with a grill, with ventilation pipes or without. In the second - we are talking about a mechanism with blades, an exhaust fan behind a protective grill. For bathrooms, they also buy silent ventilators with a partition that reliably hides the inside from the influx of water. For rooms larger than 4-6 m², 2 ventilation points are organized and it is mandatory if the bathroom is combined. In the room, you can put a regular wall fan, or at least make two hoods at different points. The latter are wall and ceiling. In modern design, the second option is preferable.
The natural type of ventilation involves air exchange between the room and the environment. Since the pressure inside the buildings is lower, because of the difference, the gaseous masses will move in the direction from the street to the room. If you open windows, windows or transoms, then the method of natural ventilation is considered unorganized. Another organized method involves the operation of exhaust and flow openings. In the ventilation ducts, deflectors are used to lower the pressure. As for modern window systems, they are equipped with shutter pressure regulators, as well as a rotary mechanism for switching to the "micro-ventilation" mode. Manufacturers rarely provide air vents and usually limit the design to only 2 leaves. The latter open in 2 different planes. For comfortable airing in the evening, mosquito nets were provided in the systems. Window openings are only in a small number of bathrooms and toilets.
Forced or artificial
Artificial (also forced, mechanical) ventilation - the movement of air mass as a result of the operation of a fan or ejector. The effectiveness of the forced option is based on additional cleaning, regulation of temperature and humidity. In the structures for mechanical ventilation, the fans themselves, dust collectors, air heaters, silencers and electric motors are used. Devices drive air over a long distance. Quality fans have the ability to locally remove air in the right amount for any changes in the environment. The contents of the fans are cleaned, heated, cooled, ionized or humidified. At the same time, the cost of electricity for high-power devices reaches high values, and it can be paid mainly by enterprises.
Types of devices for artificial air exchange:
Basic standards and requirements for the installation and organization of ventilation
One of the criteria concerns the access of fresh air to one cubic meter of bath / toilet per hour. For both rooms this is 6–7 m³. For the combined version - 8-10. Ideally, they focus on indicators of 20% more. If there is only one ventilation aperture in the bathroom, then it must be a supply type. The principle of operation is checked using a lighter: if the flame moves away from the hood, then the device is air-in, and if approaching, the exhaust. Wall or window valves, if any, must have an air purification system. All norms and requirements are in SNiP 41-01-2003. According to them, if there is air pollution and there is no natural ventilation, and therefore sanitary standards are not met, then artificial air exchange is necessary. The air intake rate for 1 person is 28 m³ / hour.
The permissible concentration of carbon dioxide is (mg / m³):
- in rural areas - 650;
- in small towns - 800;
- in large cities - 1000.
The decision on the form and structure of ventilation is made by the designer, in accordance with SNiPs. The choice of configuration is reduced to 2 solutions: round and rectangular. Take into account the features of the structure and the objectives of the room. The design will become part of a certain type of ventilation, general or local, supply, exhaust or mixed. For ventilation of a living room, office, production workshop, different parameters are needed. The advantage of the rectangular modification is compactness, simple installation and the possibility of planned laying along a complex path. The duct can be hidden even in a suspended ceiling. Current SNiPs allow a difference of 4 times the width and height of the channel in favor of the first indicator. Round ventilation ducts - this is a high throughput. The resistance level in such a duct is lower.
The rectangular section leaves many options for laying and using building volumes. Normal operation is possible even with stretch ceilings. The basis of the calculations is the volume of the room, which residents are willing to sacrifice. If every free area is important, a rectangular design will be an uncontested option. In terms of aerodynamics and sound absorption, systems with a rectangular cross section are significantly inferior to the round counterpart. More dust also accumulates in the corners. Thus, the thrust in round structures does not change with time as much as in rectangular ones. For this reason, in systems like aspiration, the rectangular cross-sectional shape is not used. Cleaning and maintaining round systems takes less time. In turn, due to flanges, the cost of 1 m² of a rectangular system is higher. The effectiveness and preference of the option also depends on the features of the gasket: the smoother the turns, the better - ergonomics.
By the cross-sectional area, such structures take up more space in height. Moreover, if the parameters of the object allow, then a round system will be the best option. There is less noise in her work, and the movement of air experiences little resistance. As a result, the entire system works more efficiently and more economically in terms of energy consumption. In this case, not only operating costs are reduced, but also the initial capital investment: smaller sizes will be needed. An additional criterion is the interior, but sometimes it becomes even decisive. The fact is that more space is needed to hide the circular air channel. Sometimes this leads to excessive loss of volume of the room, sometimes - to a deterioration in design. Outdoor placement, in turn, will greatly spoil the facade of the building, which will not be the case with a rectangular structure.
How to choose
Available range includes a large number of models. For the bathroom and toilet, 5 criteria have been identified, from which should be based. Firstly, it is the diameter of the duct in the room. The fan nozzle in standard versions is equal to 100, 125 and 150 mm. The second factor is the presence / absence of air ducts in the room itself, as well as their location. The third parameter, power affects compatibility with a particular bathroom, depending on its area and type. Another criterion is moisture protection. IP marking was assigned for him. For a plumbing assembly, models from IP30 and above are required. Ideally, it is better to spend additional funds and purchase the IP44 option. It will be in a sealed enclosure with splash protection. Another caveat is the noise level. If the exhaust system does not make sounds, the bathroom will be much more comfortable.
Among ventilation systems, there are models with smart controls.
Materials and components
Ventilation is collected from rectangular or circular ducts. In most cases, it is made of plastic or metal. In small bathrooms and toilets, the fan is located in a hole in the wall. In private homes, the ventilation system is assembled from the duct (mainly under the ceiling) - usually 2.1 and 0.5 m pipes. In this design, the fan itself is a built-in or overhead device. The first subspecies is used in complex branched systems. Overheads are used to work in one room. Complete with rectangular systems are horizontal and vertical swivel knees. The sections of the ventilation system are fastened with couplings. Check valves, in turn, prevent insects and air from entering. Usually 4 dowels for external fixation are included.
It is carried out in 4 stages:
- Preparatory stage;
- Choosing a mounting location;
- Choice of connection scheme;
- The installation itself.
First, carry out preparatory work. The first step is to compare the diameter of the exhaust device and the size of the shaft - to make sure that the measurements were correct. In which case, a plastic tube or corrugation will help, and the voids are closed with foam. A narrow hole, in contrast, is expanded with a perforator. Another point is the installation location. In the bathroom, first of all, hot humid air must be removed, so the ideal point is opposite the door and at the top of the wall. In a separate toilet, the installation location is not critical. In the bathroom / restroom, the DIY installation algorithm includes 5 points. First, remove the front cover. On the areas where the fan adjoins the wall, apply liquid nails, silicone or polymer glue. Then the device is inserted with an electric motor and a wheel with blades inside - completely hiding in the wall. The body is pressed tightly and waiting until the glue sets. Then install a mosquito net, if it was included. At the end, fix the front cover with dowels or screws, then lay the cable and connect the device to the network.
For connecting wires, use terminal blocks, not “twists”!
Diagnosis of ventilation
Changes in the bathroom begin with a diagnosis of the state of the ventilation ducts. To check traction, use a sheet of paper, a lighter or a lit match. In the supply system, paper and flame should move away from the ventilation, and in the exhaust system, they should move closer. In any case, when the channels work properly, noticeable movement will appear. Improving traction is possible after a complete check of the ventilation pipe. After repair work, garbage could remain there. The thrust of the cleaned channel is then checked twice: with the door closed and open. During installation, errors are possible that will necessarily appear on the system. We are talking about difficulties in the movement of air due to improper installation, excessive noise in the operation of the fan, violation of the tightness of the shaft connection. Noise can interfere even in a living room if ventilation pipes pass through it.
Rules and tips for the operation of the exhaust system
Regular prophylaxis is needed to prevent breakage: over time, dirt and dust accumulate on the blades. For this reason, the device will not be able to operate at full power, and at some point it will fail. Simple preventative measures include clogging and washing the blades. The ventilation system can be operated simultaneously with household humidifiers, cleaners, ionizers, air conditioners. With a decentralized system of mechanical air exchange with the utilization of the heat of the removed air, it is allowed to combine the ventilation of the bathroom with the kitchen. Under no circumstances is it permissible to combine the exhaust duct of a bathroom or toilet with parking spaces or furnace communications. Normal ventilation and operation of supply and exhaust systems is possible at room temperature not lower than +18 ° C.
Ventilation systems are distinguished in five categories: by the method of inducing movement, purpose, organization of circulation, design characteristics and section. It is natural and forced, exhaust and supply. In addition - central, local, emergency and smoke control. By design - channel and non-channel. The section shape, in turn, is rectangular and round. For bathrooms, high humidity and a rapid change in temperature are characteristic, so adjusting the microclimate will be helpful. For the room, channel supply options are selected. But the choice of form is a complex and complex issue. Before buying and installing, you should study the building and sanitary standards, coordinate the sizes and determine the place of installation. After that, select the wiring diagram and mount. From time to time, channel diagnostics will be needed.