Decorative wall decoration: types of cladding +75 photos
Decorative wall decoration is a creative process in every way. Depending on the type of material and the chosen technique, you will need the skills of an artist, designer, painter and builder. Of course, you can hire a specialist who will develop a unique project and bring it to life, but it is much more exciting to become a creator yourself. We will analyze in more detail the main types of decoration, materials for work, their advantages and disadvantages.
Decorative painting of walls is worthy competition to the wallpaper, because it allows you to participate in the creation of the background canvas, rather than sticking the finished one. In addition, this decoration method has several advantages:
- Paint will last longer than wallpaper.
- The surface will be solid without seams and joints, the formation of which cannot be avoided when using other materials.
- Paint will fall on any foundation.
- For repeated repairs, it will not be necessary to carry out complex manipulations on the old paint layer, and the wallpaper will have to be scraped off, moistened with water and again scraped off the most persistent residues tightly bonded with glue.
- If you use special types of moisture-resistant paints, such decoration can be done in the kitchen and in the bathroom.
Before direct painting, the wall is prepared. The remains of the previous coating are cleaned from it and primed. Irregularities and recesses are putty, and polished after drying. Then apply an additional layer of primer and only after complete drying do they start painting. When choosing a paint, they are guided by its composition and characteristic features that allow it to be used in certain rooms. The product range is classified into:
|Acrylic||They are environmentally friendly, lie on any surface, after drying form a durable film that withstands strong temperature fluctuations.|
|Emulsion||They are referred to as “veterans” of the construction and repair market. Paints are cheap, dry quickly, allow moisture to pass through, but require a special temperature regime during drying and are washed off with water over time.|
|Latex||This modern type of paint is diluted even with plain water. They are suitable for rooms with high humidity, are absolutely resistant to moisture, odorless and dry quickly. Of the minuses, only a rather high cost is allocated.|
|Oil and alkyd based paints||They lie well on the surface, but dry for a long time, exhaling a harsh, unpleasant odor. They serve for a long time, they are not washed off with water, but for the same reason they are expensive.|
There are a number of ways to apply paint. Conventional paint rollers and brushes will lay it in an even, dense layer on drywall, plaster or concrete. A pattern or pattern is applied to the surface using a stencil, but this is the easiest option. A lot of more original methods have been developed, for which only improvised tools will be required. To get the effect of a “rumpled” cloth, simply wrap the roller with a piece of unnecessary fabric, which is tied to the foam with a coarse thread. The more folds formed on it, the more original and interesting the pattern will come out. A more refined drawing will turn out if you decide to create the illusion of Venetian plaster. This type of decoration used to be used exclusively for facade cladding, but over time it fit into the design of the interior walls. For this method, you will have to perform a number of actions:
- Take a can of latex paint and pour its contents into a wider container.
- Then pigment is sprinkled on one half, which darkens the original color.
- It is gently stirred so as not to touch the second part of the paint.
- With a simple spatula, it is applied to the surface, like plaster. At the same time, spots of dark and light tones alternate to get a beautiful picture from two shades that randomly transform into each other.
If it is difficult for you to work with one container for two different shades, then transfer the paint to two different cans and work with them already. These are only the simplest methods of the existing ones. With the help of small tricks and patience, a simple wall is transformed and adorned beyond recognition both outside the house and inside.
Using acrylic paint, a new surface can be artificially aged (stippling), which is perfect for rooms in retro or Provence styles. In the office they create a “business” effect of expensive leather, for which you just need a homemade suede brush. Using sponges, pieces of fabric, bags, sponges and washcloths, designers form not only texture, but also relief.
Decorative plaster for interior use
The main purpose of the plaster is to level the walls, smooth out roughness and mask defects. This was so until the designers paid close attention to this finishing material, which, as it turned out, can play a more important role in the interior design. At first, decorative plaster began to be used only for facing external walls, until this experience was transferred to the interior design of apartments and houses. The decoration of the premises ceased to be pompous and pompous, giving preference to coarser and more practical materials. The plaster is based on various dispersions, which determine its characteristics. Depending on the type of binding ingredients, plaster is divided into:
The basis of the mineral includes lime and cement. It boasts a long service life and relative cheapness. Before work, this particular plaster is diluted with water. Acrylic mixture tinted, resistant to mechanical damage. Of the shortcomings, its poor vapor permeability is noted, therefore, plaster is recommended to be used only inside the house for walls and ceilings. Silicone material has a high cost, which is due to excellent quality: the material is vapor-permeable, withstands temperature shocks, is not washed off with water and will last more than one year. Silicone plaster is used for facing works both outside and inside the house. But silicate is made on the basis of potassium glass, which is toxic, so this option is best left for facade work. Mixtures also vary in granule size, on which the texture and topography of the treated surface will depend. Before finishing work, the base is treated with a primer, and in rooms with high humidity also with antifungal solutions. It should be remembered that at the preliminary stage it is impossible to use mixtures based on glue, oil or alabaster, which will only impede the absorption of plaster granules or painting the wall.
If there is no opportunity to buy ready-made plaster, then it can be prepared at home according to the original “recipe” from putty. Pay attention to the composition of the latter, from some types a mixture will be obtained that will paint a section of the wall only after applying several layers.
Wallpaper and photo wallpaper
The wallpaper market offers a wide range of products. Among the most popular are:
Paper and non-woven are among the simplest and cheapest. The former have generally been used from time immemorial, and the latter differ only in the addition of tissue fibers. Both types are used as a base for paint, they are environmentally friendly, have a rich assortment of color solutions, but are short-lived (you can’t even wash them). The surface of such wallpapers is usually smooth, but there are options with a relief pattern. Acrylic and vinyl wallpapers are durable, not afraid of moisture and ultraviolet radiation. The paper or non-woven backing is coated with a special “foam”, which forms a strong top layer. Of the minuses, only air permeability is noted, respectively, such material should not be glued to the walls in the children's room. Textile wallpaper is made from a paper base and a second layer of natural fabric. The material looks very elegant, but it is expensive, burns out, is easily damaged by moisture and quickly collects dust (they can even be vacuumed). In metallic wallpaper, the top layer is made of thin aluminum foil. They look spectacular, do not fade and are not afraid of water, but you will have to pay dearly for all these advantages. And finally, the last word in the world of wallpaper is a liquid coating. It is sold in the form of powder and, after application, vaguely resembles decorative plaster. The composition of liquid wallpaper contains cellulose fibers and spangles, which create a rich, elegant look.
Wall murals are made from the same materials as ordinary ones. They are floor-to-ceiling panoramas. Images can be very diverse: from vibrant landscapes with “rich” colors to neutral abstract paintings with calm shades. Before sticking the murals, it is necessary to clearly distinguish the area for decoration, so that subsequently your drawing does not go into a corner or come together. The paintings are purchased in special stores or made to order according to the selected drawing using special printing materials.
When choosing a type of wallpaper in a children's room, focus on their environmental friendliness, and in the kitchen and in the bathroom you will have to dwell on moisture-resistant material, which is also able to withstand temperature extremes.
Drywall is mainly used to obtain the original relief of the wall. Using this rather inexpensive material, you can create decorative beggars, shelves, arches, tiers and partitions. It is also often used in rooms where it is necessary to hide communications beautifully and neatly. On top of this coating is decorated with wallpaper, paint, plaster, tile, artificial brick or wood. You can clad the room with your own hands without the help of professionals. You will have to choose material from several types:
- Moisture resistant
- With increased refractoriness;
- Fireproof and moisture resistant.
For living quarters, ordinary plasterboard is suitable. The bathroom is water-resistant, and for the kitchen you can go broke on fireproof to protect your family in case of force majeure with an overheated stove.
The material bends easily. If you need a "curly" sheet, you can buy a special drywall for arches or gradually wet with ordinary water. At the same time, he is laid under oppression in the form that you want to receive as a result. 12 hours is enough for the sheet to “grab” and retain the bends.
Laminate wall decoration is perhaps the most recent and non-trivial design move. Many people saw this material exclusively on the floor, but not on the walls, and in fact such lining looks rich and original. Laminate perfectly imitates various surfaces and textures: from natural wood to marbled patterns. The basis of the material is fiberboard, which bends easily, and the top layer of protection ensures the durability of the coating. Laminate is chosen not by type, but by class. Each of them has certain characteristics according to GOST, based on which the material is suitable only for a certain type of premises.
Clinker tiles are made of clay with the addition of fluxes and dyes. In the production, it is burned once. Material came to us from Western Europe, where they faced houses and laid roads. The tile is highly durable, easy to clean, allows water to pass through, and is not susceptible to temperature extremes and ultraviolet radiation. Of the shortcomings, only the strong fragility of the material and the high price are noted, especially when compared with conventional ceramics. For this reason, it is rarely used in home decoration. At times it’s easier to glue the wallpaper or paint the wall instead of messing with material that easily cracks. But clinker tiles look noble and elegant. It combines well with other materials and is ideal for decorating kitchen aprons or wall sections in the bathroom.
Artificial stone is actively used in the manufacture of sinks, countertops and window sills, but designers took a step further and began to use this material in decorating walls. The stone can be of different textures and colors. It is divided into several types:
- Injection marble.
Acrylic is considered the most common. He is an example of good value for money. In the polyester, the main binder is an ester resin, not an acrylic resin, as in its close “relative”. It has a pungent, unpleasant odor that disappears over time. The polyester stone does not bend, so it cannot be used to create curly elements. Quartz material is more fragile, therefore such a surface is quite sensitive to mechanical damage. Injection stone is also called liquid. Buying material, as they say, will cost a pretty penny, but it is ideal for creating complex compositions with smooth lines and bends. It is strong, durable and does not crumble.
A natural stone
Natural stone has a lot of varieties. Among the walls most often used in decorating, note:
They also use stone chips, river pebbles and specially hewn cubes. We will talk about sandstone below, because it goes well with the artificial base. The result of such experiments became the material of the “new generation”. The most durable and popular are granite and marble, but such a coating can "fonit" and affect the health of the owners of the apartment. Before buying stone supplies for decoration, take an interest in their deposit. In some quarries, granite or marble is more radioactive. This property of them directly depends on the area of production. In terms of strength, such a finishing coating is unlikely to be comparable with such material. He is not afraid of anything: temperature, humidity, mechanical damage. To verify this, it is enough to recall the marble and granite memorials that have stood in the open air for decades and retain their beauty. Bathtubs, worktops are made from natural stone, they are laid out on the floor or paths in the garden. This material is fireproof and is used even in the facing of fireplaces.
Sandstone is used not only in its "natural" form. It is a plastic sedimentary rock. It is "cut" into thin slices - layers that are attached to fiberglass. Such a stone bends perfectly, and depending on its subtlety it is used to create designer wallpapers or tiles. Material is considered the most successful combination of natural and artificial. It is lightweight, environmentally friendly, fireproof, moisture resistant and can withstand the most aggressive conditions. The flexible stone is universal, it can even be tiled with walls in the nursery and bathroom. According to manufacturers, the average life of the material is about 30-35 years.
Wood is a unique material that combines beauty and excellent performance. The range of wood is wide and rich. The most affordable and cheapest are:
The more rare and expensive include:
- Karelian birch;
- Manchurian walnut;
- Crimean mahogany;
And of course, the ebony tree, better known as “black”, is considered to be the most “exclusive” type of wood. For the decoration of walls using prepared wood materials. The most popular include:
- Block house;
Lining is the processed narrow boards. A block house is the same material that has rounded ends that mimic a Russian log house. The panels are created both from solid wood and from its residues (using a press and a special adhesive base), which greatly reduces the cost. Behind the name of the gusvarblok are wooden wallpapers, which are distinguished by filigree work in production and a high price. These are not paper rolls, which we are all accustomed to, but rather thick wooden panels fastened together through grooves. As raw materials for any of the above facing materials, conifers, deciduous or rare trees are taken.
If you do not have artistic talent, you will have to consult a specialist to paint the walls in the apartment. This is a delicate, painstaking work, which directly depends on the complexity of the selected drawing. A room with painted walls will gain an impressive flavor. Furnishings and furniture will have to match him. For wall art use three types of paints:
Acrylic is durable and not afraid of moisture, temperature changes. The tiniest correct the smallest details, as the paint goes more elegantly. To obtain a relief pattern, it is applied to Venetian plaster. Pictures become voluminous and abstract with blurry features. The rooms were painted with oil in the Middle Ages. Now the composition of oil paints has changed, and it is unlikely that your masterpiece will live as long as the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, but we do not claim to compete with the great masters of painting of the past. Recently, airbrushing is considered a popular form of applying paint. The can contains compressed powder or liquid dye that is sprayed over the surface. But such work requires special preparation: getting used to non-standard “writing” accessories is rather difficult. You can practice on any smooth surface that is not a pity: the door from an unnecessary cabinet, an old mirror, a demolition wall of a building.
Cork is extracted from the outer bark of some tree species. Most often it is obtained from the cork tree of the same name, which gave the name to the material. Due to the complex processing technology, the material has a rather high cost, compensated by the durability and moisture resistance of the coating. Cork is available in two forms:
Depending on what area of the wall they are going to cover it, and the type of material is chosen. The cork is pleasant to the touch: it is both durable and pliable. The material is resistant to mechanical damage. With a slight impact, it will simply bend and then return to its previous state, so scratching the cork coating is quite difficult. Of the minuses, only the “poor” color scheme is noted, which is limited to all shades of brown.
For the installation of decorative wall panels, a special design will be required: a lath made of metal or wood. The components are “planted” on it. Panels are classified into three types:
- Rack and pinion.
The second is much smaller, and it is easier to lay out the original drawing from them. Usually use tiles of different sizes and colors within the same gamut. Rack and pinion remotely resemble a lining: long, narrow planks. Sheet panels are used to cover large areas. The material used is plastic, glass, gypsum vinyl, wood and its derivatives (MDF, particleboard, fiberboard).
Particleboard panels are made of chips, which are hot pressed. The material is less durable compared to wood, and is susceptible to high humidity, temperature jumps. It can not be used for a bathroom or kitchen, so you have to confine yourself to a living room, hallway or bedroom. Fiberboard is produced using the same technology, but instead of chips, plant and wood fibers are used that are more resistant to kitchen conditions, for example. However, this material should be protected from direct water on the surface, so the bath still remains under the taboo.
MDF is subjected to dry pressing, as a result of which the chip releases lignin. It forms a strong "film", which holds and improves performance. MDF is not afraid of neither water, nor ultraviolet, nor elevated temperatures. The material is also able to withstand heavy loads, so it is often used to create shelves. MDF panels are suitable for absolutely any room in an apartment or house. OSB boards are made from shavings, resins and synthetic wax. They have a rather unpretentious appearance, which is offset by a pleasant price and durability in all respects. The material in the interior painting is mainly used for flooring, but this option is also suitable for walls.
PVC has long established itself as a durable artificial material. Surprisingly, his formula was the result of chance. The French scientist received it during the experiment and simply could not characterize his invention. PVC is made of polyvinyl chloride and softener. The latter is added in minimal concentrations. PVC is actively used to create windows, window sills, doors and other products vital for living quarters. The plastic is fireproof, not afraid of water, temperature changes, it is easy to wash and difficult to scratch. PVC is relatively cheap and safe for health. The release of harmful substances is accompanied only by its production.
Repair is not always an overwhelming burden that I want to get rid of as soon as possible. This process can be enjoyable and bring a lot of pleasure. Do not forget that the walls are the background of your apartment: bright, defiant or calm. The furniture and “box” of the house should be “tied” into a complex composition of the design project, which preserves the inner harmony. That is why the walls are decorated in accordance with the rules of the general interior concept.